The demand and supply of cement is specifically modeled in the IMAGE framework. The model starts with simulating the physical demand for cement, based on statistical relations between economic activity, material intensity and the demand for cement. Once the consumption level has been determined, a material production model simulates how to fulfill the demand for cement. This takes into account dynamics such as trade, stock turnover, recycling, and competition between different cement production technologies, which each containing their own energy consumption specifics. For more information, see the industrial sector sub-page.