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A number centralized district heating technologies based on fossil and renewable energy sources are represented in MESSAGE (see Table 1). Similar to coupled heat and power (CHP) technologies that are described in the electricity sector, these heating plants feed low temperature heat into the district heating system that is then used in the end-use sectors. In addition, there are (decentralized) heat generation options in the industry and residential and commercial sectors.

Table 1: List of centralized heat generation technologies represented in MESSAGE by energy source.

Energy Source

Technology

coal

coal district heating plant

oil

light fuel oil district heating plant

gas

gas district heating plant

biomass

solid biomass district heating plant

geothermal

geothermal district heating plant

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