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The demand and supply of steel is specifically modeled in the IMAGE framework. The model starts with simulating the physical demand for steel, based on statistical relations between economic activity, material intensity and the demand for steel. Once the consumption level has been determined, a material production model simulates how to fulfill the demand for steel. This takes into account dynamics such as trade, stock turnover, recycling, and competition between different steel production technologies, which each containing their own energy consumption specifics. For more information, see the industrial sector sub-page.

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