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Beyond electricity and heat generation there are three further subsectors of the conversion sector represented in MESSAGE, liquid fuel production, gaseous production and hydrogen production.

Liquid Fuel Production

Apart from oil refining as predominant supply technology for liquid fuels at present a number of alternative liquid fuel production routes from different feedstocks are represented in MESSAGE (see Table 1). Different processes for coal liquefaction, gas-to-liquids technologiesand biomass-to-liquids technologies both with and without CCS are covered. Some of these technologies include co-generation of electricity, for example, by burning unconverted syngas from a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a gas turbine (c.f. Larson et al. 2012). Technology costs for the synthetic liquid fuel production options are based on Larson et al. 2012.

Table 1: Liquid fuel production technologies in MESSAGE by energy source.

Energy Source

Technology

Electricity cogeneration

coal

Fischer-Tropsch coal-to-liquids
Fischer-Tropsch coal-to-liquids with CCS
coal methanol-to-gasoline
coal methanol-to-gasoline with CCS

yes
yes
yes
yes

oil

simple refinery
complex refinery

no
no

gas

Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquids
Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquids with CCS

no
no

biomass

Fischer-Tropsch biomass-to-liquids
Fischer-Tropsch biomass-to-liquids with CCS

yes
yes

Gaseous Fuel Production

Table 2: Gaseous fuel production technologies in MESSAGE by energy source.

Energy Source

Technology

coal

coal gasification
coal gasification with CCS

biomass

biomass gasification
biomass gasification with CCS

Hydrogen Production

Table 3: Hydrogen production technologies in MESSAGE by energy source.

Energy source

Technology

Electricity cogeneration

coal

coal gasification
coal gasification with CCS

yes
yes

gas

steam methane reforming
steam methane reforming with CCS

yes
no

biomass

biomass gasification
biomass gasification with CCS

yes
yes

electricity

electrolysis

no

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