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Name and Version:  REMIND 1.5

Model developer and main users: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

Model objective:
REMIND is a global multi-regional model incorporating the economy,
the climate system and a detailed representation of the energy sector.
REMIND allows for a sophisticated analysis of technology options and
policy proposals for climate mitigation. It accounts for economic and energy investments in the model regions, and interregional trade in goods, energy carriers and emissions allowances.

Model concept:  Hybrid
Hybrid model that couples an economic growth model with a detailed energy system model and a simple climate model.

Solution Method:
Inter-temporal optimization that maximizes cumulated discounted global welfare: Ramsey-type growth model with Negishi approach to regional welfare aggregation.

Base year: 2005

Time Horizon, and time steps:
2005-2150; flexible time steps but the default is 5-year time steps until 2050 and 10-year time steps until 2100; the period from 2100-2150 is calculated to avoid distortions due to end effects, but typically we only use the time span 2005-2100 for model applications

Model anticipation: Perfect Foresight

Coverage and regions:
Global coverage.
11 regions:
AFR - Sub-Saharan Africa
CHN - China
EUR - European Union
JPN - Japan
IND - India
LAM - Latin America
MEA - Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia
OAS - other Asian countries (mainly South-East Asia)
RUS - Russia
ROW - rest of the World (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa)
USA - United States of America

Policy implementation:
Pareto-optimal achievement of policy targets on temperature, radiative forcing, GHG concentration,
cumulative carbon budgets, or CO2 emissions over time under full when- and where-flexibility.
Implementation of permit allocation rules among regions.
Possibility of pre-specified carbon tax pathway.
Fossil fuel subsidies and taxes.

Economic sectors (represented separately in terms of value added):

☐ Agriculture
☐ Industry
☐ Energy
☐ Transport
☐ Services
X Other
 
If other, please list or give number. If no separate sectors please give brief explanation of economy:
The macro-economic part contains a single sector representation of the entire economy. A generic final good is produced from capital, labor, and different final energy types.

Exogenous Model Drivers:
☐ Exogenous GDP
☐ Total Factor Productivity
X Labour Productivity
☐ Capital Technical progress
☐ Energy Technical progress
☐ Materials Technical progress
☐ GDP per capita
X Other

If other types or endogenous drivers, please describe:
Calibration of energy efficiency parameters of the production function.
Endogenous learning-by-doing for wind and solar power as well as electric and fuel cell vehicle technologies (global learning curve, internalized spillovers). 

Development:

X GDP per capita
☐ Income distribution in a region
☐ Urbanisation rate
☐ Education level
☐ Labour participation rate
☐ Other
If other, please briefly describe:

 Behaviour and behavioural change:
 
Price response through CES production function.

No explicit modeling of behavioural change. Baseline energy demands are calibrated in such a way that the energy demand patterns in different regions slowly converge when displayed as per capita energy demand over per capita GDP"

Cost measures:
 
X GDP loss
X Welfare loss
X Consumption loss
☐ Area under MAC
☐ Energy system costs
☐ Other
If other, please briefly describe:

Trade:
 
X Coal  X Oil
X Gas  X Uranium
☐ Electricity
X Bioenergy crops ☐ Food crops
X Capital
X Emissions permits
X Non-energy goods
☐ Other

If other, please briefly describe:

Resource Use:
X Coal
X Oil
X Gas
X Uranium
X Biomass
☐ Other

If others, please give brief details or number:

Electricity technologies:
 
X Coal X Gas
X Oil   X Nuclear
X Biomass X Wind
X Solar PV  X CCS
X Others

If others, please give brief details or number:
Others include Solar CSP, Hydropower, and Geothermal.

Heat and other conversion technologies:
X CHP
X Heat pumps
X Hydrogen
X Fuel to gas
X Fuel to liquid
X Others

If others, or if necessary,  please give brief details or number of each technology:
Heat plants

Grid and infrastructure:
 
X Electricity
X Gas
X Heat
X CO2
X H2
☐ Other
If other, please briefly describe:

Generalized transmission and distribution costs are included, but not modeled on an explicit spatial level.
Regionalized additional grid and storage costs for renewable integration are included.

Energy Technology Substitution:
X Discrete technology choices
X Expansion and decline constraints
X System integration constraints
☐ Other

If other, please give brief details or number:
Expansion and decline, and system integration are influenced though cost markups rather than constraints.

Energy Service sectors
X Transportation
X Industry
X Residential and commercial
 
If others, please give brief details or number:
Industry and Residential and Commercial are not treated separately but represented jointly by one Stationary sector (referred to as 'Other Sector').

Land-use
Please list land use types:
 
Bioenergy supply from the land-use sector is represented by an emulation of the land-use model MAgPIE.
The emulator focuses on bioenergy supply costs and agricultural emissions.

Other Resources
☐ Water
☐ Metals
X Cement
☐ Other

If others or specifics, please give brief details
Cement production is not explicitly modeled, but emissions from cement production are accounted for.

Emissions and climate

Greenhouse Gases coverage:
          X CO2  X CH4 X N2O X HFCs X CFCs X SFs

Pollutants and non-GHG forcing agents:
             X NOx X SOx X BC X OC X Ozone X Other

If other, please specify:
PFCs, CO, VOC, Nitrate, Mineral dust, Land use albedo, Stratospheric water vapor

Modelling of Climate indicators:
X CO2e concentration (ppm)  
X Radiative Forcing (Wm2 )
X Temperature change (Co)  
☐ Climate damages $ or equivalent

Different emissions are accounted for with different levels of detail depending on the types and sources of emissions (directly by source, via MAC curves, by econometric estimates, exogenous).

 

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