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Summated scales are a collection of related questions that measure an underlying concept. The following is a list of some of the Scales/Validated Instruments used in the CLOSER studies. The scales will be added to CLOSER Discovery and linked to those instruments which use them.


Scale / Validated InstrumentInstrument where scale is usedCreatorPublication DateSourceProvenanceCopyright
Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)ALSPAC Life of a 16+ Teenager 


http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/audit/en/Thomas Babor and the World Health Organization (1992). Public Domain.
ALSPAC Teen Focus 2
ALSPAC Teen Focus 3
ALSPAC You and Your Life
NCDS  Cohort Member Biomedical and Paper Self Completions
Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Primary Care (AUDIT-PC)NCDS CAI Questionnaire 2008Babor T.F., De la Fuente J.R., Saunders J., Grant, M.1989AUDIT: the alcohol use disorders identification test—guidelines for use in primary health care. Geneva, World Health Organization.
the World Health Organization
ALSPAC Marital Relationship Scale based Quinton and Rutter (1988) and Stanley (1994)ALSPAC About Yourself




Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking (AISS)ALSPAC Life of a 16+ Teenager Arnett, J.1994Sensation seeking: A new conceptualization and a new scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 16(2), 289-296.http://www.sjdm.org/dmidi/Arnett_Inventory_of_Sensation_Seeking.htmlArnett (1994). Public Domain
ALSPAC Your Changing Life
Bachman Self Esteem ScaleALSPAC Partner's Health Events and FeelingsBachman, J.1970Youth in Transition: Volume II. The Impact of Family Background and Intelligence on Tenth-Grade Boys.http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/dis/infoserv/isrpub/pdf/Theimpact_3039_.PDFJerald G. Bachman (1970). Public Domain.
Bracken Basic Concept ScaleMCS Child Measurements Questionnaire 2003Bracker, B.A.1998, 1984Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation, Harcourt Brace and Company.

Bristol Social Adjustment Guide (BSAG) NCDS The Child in School questionnaire 1965Stott, D.H.1963The social adjustment of children: Manual of the Bristol Social-Adjustment Guides, University of London Press.http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/library-media/documents/NCDS%20Bristol%20Social%20Adjustment%20Guides%20final.pdfCenter for Longitudinal Studies (2013)
 NCDS The Child in School questionnaire 1969
CAGE Assessment for Alcohol Abuse (CAGE)NCDS CAI Questionnaire 2000Ewing, J.A.1905-1907, 1984Detecting Alcoholism: The CAGE Questionnaire. JAMA 252.

Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI)ALSPAC You and Your Life




CARALOC (Locus of control)BCS70  Pupil Question Form 1980Gammage, P.1975Socialisation, schooling and locus of control. Bristol University: PhD Thesis.http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED233789.pdfPhilip Gammage (1982)
ALSPAC You and Your LifeRotter JB.1966 Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychol Monogr (80) 1-28.




Carey Infant Temperament ScaleALSPAC My Son/Daughter Fullard, W., McDevitt, S., and Carey, W.1968The Carey Temperament Scales. Behavioral-Development Initiatives.

Carey Toddler Temperament ScaleALSPAC My Little Boy/Girl

Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Quality of Life Measure (CASP-14/19)NCDS Self Completion Questionnaire 2008Wiggins R.D., Higgs P. and Blane D.B.2003A measure of quality of life in early old age: the theory, development and properties of a needs satisfaction model [CASP-19], Ageing and Mental Health.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/1360786031000101157?needAccess=true
Chalder Fatigue scale (CFQ)ALSPAC Life of a 16+ Teenager Cella, M. and Chalder T.2010Measuring fatigue in clinical and community settings. J Psychosom Res 69(1): 17-22.

Child Social Behaviour Questionnaire (CSBQ)MCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2003Sammons, P., Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Siraj-Blatchford, I., Taggart, B, Elliott, K., & Marsh, A.2004

UCL, Institute of Education
MCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2005




MCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2006




Childrens Communication Checklist (CCC)ALSPAC 2001 (MS/Da9)Bishop1998Parent and Teacher Report of Pragmatic Aspects of Communication: Use of the Children's Communication Checklist in a Clinical Setting.
Dorothy Bishop (2001) 
Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R)NCDS BiomedicalGoldberg, D. P., Cooper, B., Eastwood, M. R., Kedward, H. B. and Shepherd, M.1970A standardized psychiatric interview for use in community surveys British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine 24, 18-23.

Condon Maternal Attachment QuestionnaireMCS Questionnaire 2001Condon, J.T. and Corkindale, C.J.1996The Assessment of Parent-to-Infant Attachment: Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire Instrument.

Confusion, Order and Hubbub scale (CHAOS)ALSPAC You and Your LifeMatheny, A.P., Washs, T. D., Ludwig, J.L., and Philips, K.1995Bringing Order Out of Chaos: Psychometric Characteristics of the Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 16, 429-444.

Crown Crisp Experiential Index (CCEI)ALSPAC A Toddler in the House - PartnersCrisp, A. H. and Crown, S.1979Manual of the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index London Hodder and Stoughton.http://www.scalesandmeasures.net/files/files/Middlesex%20Hospital%20Questionnaire%20%281966%29.pdf
ALSPAC Caring for a Toddler
ALSPAC Having a Baby
ALSPAC Lifestyle and health of mother
ALSPAC Lifestyle and Health of Partner
ALSPAC Looking After the Baby
ALSPAC Me and My Baby
ALSPAC Mother's Lifestyle
ALSPAC Partner's Health Events and Feelings
ALSPAC Partner's Lifestyle
ALSPAC Partner's Questionnaire
ALSPAC Study Mother's Questionnaire
ALSPAC Study Partner's Questionnaire
ALSPAC The Baby and Me - Partners
ALSPAC Your Health Events and Feelings
ALSPAC Your pregnancy/Filling the Gaps
Denver Developmental Screening TestALSPAC My Son/DaughterFrankenberg, W.K and Dobbs, J B.1967The Denver Developmental Screening Test

ALSPAC My Young Baby Boy/Girl
MCS Questionnaire 2001
Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA)ALSPAC  My Son/Daughter's Well-beingMeltzer, H.,  Gatward, R. Goodman, R. and Ford, T.2000Mental health of children and adolescents in Great Britain. London: The Stationery Office.
Youth in Mind
ALSPAC 2002 (S-SEFG)
ALSPAC My Daughter's Health and Happiness
ALSPAC Teen Focus 3
ALSPAC Wellbeing of my Teenage Daughter
Dyslexia Adult Screening Test (DAST)BCS70 Questionnaire 2004




Emotionality, Activity, and Sociability Temperament Scale (EAS)ALSPAC My Three Year Old Boy/GirlBuss, A.H and Plomin, R.1984Temperament: Early developing personality traits
1984 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)ALSPAC  Father and the FamilyCox, J.L., Holden, J.M. Sagovsky, R.2000Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry 150:782-786.http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/bjprcpsych/150/6/782.full.pdf
ALSPAC A Toddler in the House - Partners
ALSPAC Caring for a Toddler
ALSPAC Having a Baby
ALSPAC Lifestyle and health of mother
ALSPAC Lifestyle and Health of Partner
ALSPAC Looking After the Baby
ALSPAC Me and My Baby
ALSPAC Mother and Family
ALSPAC Mother's Lifestyle
ALSPAC Partner's Health Events and Feelings
ALSPAC Partner's Lifestyle
ALSPAC Study Mother's Questionnaire
ALSPAC Study Partner's Questionnaire
ALSPAC The Baby and Me - Partners
ALSPAC You and Your Life
ALSPAC Your Health Events and Feelings
ALSPAC Your pregnancy/Filling the Gaps
Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)ALSPAC You and Your LifeHeatherton, T. F., Kozlowski, L. T., Frecker, R. C. and Fagerstrom, K.-O.1991

Todd E. Heatherton
Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)SWS  Late Pregnancy Questionnaire










SWS 12 Month Infancy Questionnaire




SWS 3 Year Child Questionnaire




SWS 6 Month Infancy Questionnaire




SWS Early Pregnancy Questionnaire




General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)
Goldberg, D. and Williams, P.1988A users guide to the General Health Questionnaire.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1700485/pdf/brmedj02289-0013.pdf
BCS70 Questionnaire 2000
NCDS Questionnaire 2000




Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI)ALSPAC Development and Health of My Son/DaughterGolombok, S. and Rust, J.1993The Pre-School Activities Inventory: A Standardized Assessment of Gender Role in Children.
the American Psychological Association (1993)
Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital State (GRIMS)MCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2005Rust, J., Bennun, I. Crowe, M. and Golombok, S.1990The GRIMS: A psychometric instrument for the assessment of marital discord. Journal of Family Therapy.http://www.psychometrics.cam.ac.uk/services/psychometric-tests/GRIMSTheAssociationforFamilyTherapy (1990)
MCS Questionnaire 2001
Perceived Competence Scale for Self-PerceptionNCDS Cohort Member Interview 1981Harter, S.1982The Perceived Competence Scale for Children.https://www.jstor.org/stable/1129640?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contentsPermission to copy for own use
Home Observation Measurement of the Environment





Home Observation Measurement of the Environment-Short FormNCDS Your Child 1991Caldwell, B.M. and Bradley, R H1984Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment.

Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score  (HADS)HCS Health Questionnaire




Conner's Comprehensive Behavior Rating Scales™BCS70  1986Connors, CK.1964


Index of Mental HealthBCS70 1986Rosenberg, M.1965Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

International Personality Item Pool (IPIP)NCDS8 Self-completion QuestionnaireGoldberg, L.R.1999A broad-bandwidth, public domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models. In Mervielde, I. Deary, I., De Fruyt, F. and Ostendorf, F. (Eds.), Personality Psychology in Europe, Vol. 7 (7-28). Tilburg, The Netherlands, Tilburg University Press.
Public Domain
Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM)ALSPAC Having a BabyBoyce, P., and Parker, G.1989Development of a scale to measure interpersonal sensitivity. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 23, 341–351.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/20353391_Development_of_a_scale_to_measure_interpersonal_sensitivityDr Philip Boyce (1989)

Intimate Bond Measure (IBM)
Wilhelm, K. and Parker, G.1988The development of a measure of intimate bonds Psychological Medicine, (18) 225-34The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhoodhttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/psychological-medicine/article/div-classtitlethe-development-of-a-measure-of-intimate-bondsdiv/03E41696ACC64430084C9403044A7945
ISAAC Asthma QuestionsSWS 12 Month Infancy Questionnaire
The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood.http://isaac.auckland.ac.nz/Public Domain
SWS 24 Month Child Questionnaire 
SWS 3 Year Child Questionnaire
SWS 6 Month Infancy Questionnaire
SWS Early Pregnancy Questionnaire
JIIG-CAL Occupational Interests GuideBCS70 JIIG-CAL Occupational Interests Guide 1986Closs, S. J.1993JIIG-CAL Reference Manual. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Job Involvement Questionnaire (JIQ)NCDS Questionnaire 2008Kanungo, R.N.1982Measurement of Job and Work Involvement. 
American Psychological Association, Inc. (1982).
Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6)MCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2003Kessler, R.C., Barker, P.R., Colpe, L.J., Epstein, J.F., Gfroerer, J.C., Hiripi, E., Howes, M.J., Normand, SL.T., Manderscheid, R.W., Walters, E.E., Zaslavsky, A.M.2003Screening for serious mental illness in the general population, Archives of General Psychiatry,  60(2), 184-189.http://www.hcp.med.harvard.edu/ncs/ftpdir/k6/Self%20admin_K6.pdfWorld Health Organization (2003). All rights reserved.
MCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2005
MCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2006
MCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2008
Lawrence's Self-Esteem Questionnaire  (LAWSEQ) BCS70 1986Lawrence, D.1982Development of a self-esteem questionnaire British Journal of Educational Psychology, 51 (2) 245-9.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1981.tb02481.x/abstractLawrence (1981). Fair Use.
Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (LWMAT)BCS70 Questionnaire 2001Locke, H.J. and Wallace, K.M.1959Short marital adjustment and prediction tests: their reliability and validity', Marriage and Family Living,  21, pp.251-255.
Marriage and Family Living © 1959 National Council on Family Relations
NCDS Questionnaire 2001
MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (CDIs)ALSPAC My Infant Son/Daughter




NCDS Child Interview 1991
ALSPAC My Little Boy/Girl
ALSPAC My Three Year Old Boy/Girl
Malaise InventoryBCS70 1980Rutter, M.,Tizard, J. and Whitmore, K.1970Education, Health and Behaviour, London: Longmans.
Longman Group Ltd. (1970). All rights reserved. Contact publisher for use of the scale.
BCS70 1986
BCS70 Maternal Self Completion 1975
BCS70 Questionnaire 2002
BCS70 Questionnaire 2005
Cohort Member Interview 1991

NCDS Questionnaire 2009
NCDS Cohort Member Interview 1981
McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA)NCDS Child Interview 1991McCarthy, D.1972


Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS-Sleep)ALSAPC 18Hays, R.D., and Stewart, A.L.1992Construct validity of MOS health measures. In Stewart,  A. L. and Ware, J. E. (eds.), Measuring functioning and well-being: The Medical Outcomes Study approach.

Medical Research Council (MRC) Respiratory QuestionnaireHCS Health Questionnaire
1986Medical Research Council's Committee on Environmental and Occupational Health.

Nowicki and Strickland Adult Locus of ControlALSPAC About YourselfNowicki, S. and Strickland, B.1973A locus of control scale for children, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 40(1), 148-154.
Stephen Nowicki (1973)
ALSPAC Life of a 16+ Teenager
ALSPAC You and Your Environment - Partner
OCEAN Personality TestMCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2008




Parent Bonding Instrument (PBI)ALSPAC About YourselfParker, G., Tupling, H., and Brown, L.B.1979A Parental Bonding Instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1-10.
Pianta, University of Virginia (1992).
Child-Parent Relationship Scale- Sort Form  (CPRS-short)MCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2003Driscoll, K. and Pianta, R.C.2011Mothers' and fathers' perceptions of conflict and closeness in parent-child relationships during early childhood. Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology, (7), 1-24.http://curry.virginia.edu/uploads/resourceLibrary/Mothers_and_Fathers_Perceptions_(Driscoll_Pianta).pdf
Psychosis Like Symptoms (PLIKS)ALSPAC  Watches and Funny Feelings




ALSPAC Life of a 16+ Teenager




ALSPAC Life of a Teenager




ALSPAC Reading and Singing




ALSPAC Teen Focus 4 (Focus at 17+)




Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Rutter Child Scale A)
Rutter, M., Tizard, J. and Whitmore, K.1970Education, Health and Behaviour. London: Longmans.
Longman Group Ltd. (1970). All rights reserved. Contact publisher for use of the scale.
BCS70 Maternal Self Completion 1975
BCS70 Maternal Self Completion 1980
BCS70 Maternal Self Completion 1986
NCDS  Parental Questionnaire 1974
NCDS Educational Questionnaire 1964

Rose Angina Questionnaire (RAQ)HCS Health QuestionnaireRose, G., McCartney, P., and Reid, D.D.1977Self-Administration of a Questionnaire on Chest Pain and Intermittent Claudication. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC478990/pdf/brjprevsmed00025-0046.pdf
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE)ALSAPC 18Rosenberg, M.1965Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9520926the Morris Rosenberg Foundation

ALSPAC You and Your Life
This is a revised version of the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale.MCS Questionnaire 2001
Children's Behavior Questionnaire for Teachers (Rutter's Child Scale B)NCDS  Parental Questionnaire 1975Rutter, M., Tizard, J. and Whitmore, K.1970Education, Health and Behaviour. London: Longmans
Longman Group Ltd. (1970). All rights reserved. Contact publisher for use of the scale.
Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN)ALSPAC  Watches and Funny FeelingsWing, J.K., Babor, T., Brugha, T., Burke, J., Cooper, J.E., Giel, R., Jablenski, A., Regier, D. and Sartorius N.1990Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry. 47(6):589-93.http://whoscan.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/xinterview.pdfWorld Health Organization 
ALSPAC 11
ALSPAC 13
ALSPAC 14
ALSPAC 16
ALSPAC Life of a 16+ Teenager
ALSPAC Life of a Teenager
ALSPAC Reading and Singing
Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36)ALSPAC You and Your LifeWare J.E., Snow K.K., Kosinski M. and Gandek, B.1993SF-36 Health Survey Manual and Interpretation Guide.  Boston, MA: New England Medical Center, The Health Institute.
Public documents
ALSPAC Your Changing Life
HCS Health Questionnaire
Short Form 8 Health Survey (SF-8)MCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2005




MCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2008
Short Moods and Feelings questionnaire (MFQ)ALSPAC 2001 (MS/Da9)Angold, A., Costello, E. J., Messer, S. C., Pickles, A., Winder, F., and Silver, D.1995The development of a short questionnaire for use in epidemiological studies of depression in children and adolescents. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 5, 237-249.http://devepi.duhs.duke.edu/AngoldMFQarticle.pdfAngold, A., and Costello, E.J. (1987) Developmental Epidemiology Program, Duke University.
ALSPAC Being a Boy/Girl
ALSPAC Focus at 10
ALSPAC Life of a 16+ Teenager
ALSPAC My Teenage Son
ALSPAC Your Changing Life
Skuse Social Cognition ScaleALSPAC My Daughter's Health and Happiness



D. H. Skuse
ALSPAC My Daughter's Health and Happiness




ALSPAC Wellbeing of my Teenage Daughter




ALSPAC Wellbeing of my Teenage Daughter




Social Environment Questions developed by the Home Office for Child Health and Education Study (CHES) surveyALSPAC  Your Home and Life




BCS70 1986




State-Trait Anxiety Iventory (STAI)ALSPAC  Father and the FamilySpielberger, C.D., Gorsuch, R.L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P. R., and Jacobs, G.A.1983Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
1968, 1977 by Charles D. Spielberger 
ALSPAC Mother and Family
ALSPAC Mother and Home
ALSPAC Partner and Home
Conflict Tactics ScaleMCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2003Straus, M.A.1979Measuring intra-family conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 75-88.http://pubpages.unh.edu/~mas2/CTS41%20(CTS2x-Abridged).pdf
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)ALSPAC 2001 (MS/Da9)Goodman, R.1997The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A Research Note.  Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581-586.http://www.sdqinfo.com/
ALSPAC 2002 (S-SEFG)
ALSPAC Being a Boy/Girl
ALSPAC Mother and Family
ALSPAC Mothers New Questionnaire
ALSPAC My Teenage Son
ALSPAC Partner's New Questionnaire
ALSPAC Your Son/Daughter 16+ Years On
MCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2003
MCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2005
MCS Main and Partner Respondent Questionnaire 2008
SWS 3 Year Child Questionnaire
Thackray Reading Readiness ProfileBCS70 CHES Pictoral and Language Comprehension Test 1980




Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS)
Tennant, R., Hiller, L., Fishwick, R., Platt, S., Joseph, S., Weich, S., Parkinson, J., Secker, J., Stewart-brown, S.2007The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS): Development and UK validation. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 5. 63. 
NHS Health Scotland, University of Warwick and University of Edinburgh, 2006
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised: Memory for Digit Span WISC-RNCDS Child Interview 1991Wechsler, D.1949


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