UCL WIKI

UCL Logo
Child pages
  • Hanzi
Skip to end of metadata
Go to start of metadata

Hanzi

MP3 sound recording (link)
史密斯先生:宋先生,我可以问你一个问题吗? Shǐmìsī xiānsheng: Sòng xiānsheng, wǒ kěyǐ wèn nǐ yí ge wèntí ma?
宋先生:可以啊,什么问题? Sòng xiānsheng: Kěyǐ a, shénme wèntí?
史密斯先生:这个字是什么意思? Shǐmìsī xiānsheng: Zhège zì shì shénme yìsi?
宋先生:“川”,表示河流、水流之类的。 Sòng xiānsheng: "Chuān", biǎoshì héliú, shuǐliú zhīlèi de.
史密斯先生:怎么理解这个字呢? Shǐmìsī xiānsheng: Zěnme lǐjiě zhège zì ne?
宋先生:你看,这个字只有三笔,像不像三条平行的小溪? Sòng xiānsheng: Nǐ kàn, zhège zì zhǐ yǒu sān bǐ, xiàng bu xiàng sān tiáo píngxíng de xiǎoxī?
史密斯先生:确实!所以这是象形字吗? Shǐmìsī xiānsheng: Quèshí! Suǒyǐ zhè shì xiàngxíng zì ma?
宋先生:是啊,就是按照对现实事物的观察创造出来的字。 Sòng xiānsheng: Shì a, jiù shi ànzhào duì xiànshí shìwù de guānchá chuàngzàochūlái de zì.
史密斯先生:那么,所有的中国字都是象形字吗? Shǐmìsī xiānsheng: Nàme, suǒyǒu de Zhōngguó zì dōu shì xiàngxíng zì ma?
宋先生:不是。其实大多数中国字是根据意思创造的。 Sòng xiānsheng: Bú shì. Qíshí dàduōshù Zhōngguó zì shì gēnjù yìsi chuàngzào de.
史密斯先生:可以给我举个例子吗? Shǐmìsī xiānsheng: Kěyǐ gěi wǒ jǔ ge lìzi ma?
宋先生:比如“忐忑”这个词,就是由“上”、“下”、“心”字组成的,它的意思就是心里七上八下,非常不安。 Sòng xiānsheng: Bǐrú "tǎntè" zhège cí, jiù shi yóu "shàng", "xià", "xīn" zì zǔchéng de, tā de yìsi jiù shi xīn lǐ qīshàng bāxià, fēicháng bù’ān.
史密斯先生:真是太形象了。中国字还有什么特点吗? Shǐmìsī xiānsheng: Zhēnshì tài xíngxiàng le. Zhōngguó zì hái yǒu shénme tèdiǎn ma?
宋先生:还有拟声字,比如“啦”、“呀”,没有明确的意思,有些形容自然界的声音,有些是语气助词。这些词通常是左右结构,左边一般都是口字旁,读音跟右半边的汉字相似。 Sòng xiānsheng: Hái yǒu nǐshēng zì, bǐrú "la", "ya", méi yǒu míngquè de yìsi, yǒu xiē xíngróng zìránjiè de shēngyīn, yǒu xiē shì yǔqì zhùcí. Zhèxiē cí tōngcháng shì zuǒyòu jiégòu, zuǒbiān yìbān dōu shì kǒuzipáng, dúyīn gēn yòubànbiān de hànzì xiāngsì.
史密斯先生:我觉得这种词特别难学。 Shǐmìsī xiānsheng: Wǒ juéde zhè zhǒng cí tèbié nánxué.
宋先生:我可以理解,因为它们没有明确的意思,用法也很难总结,如果不是熟练的中文使用者,通常会觉得很难。 Sòng xiānsheng: Wǒ kěyǐ lǐjiě, yīnwèi tāmen méi yǒu míngquè de yìsi, yòngfǎ yě hěn nán zǒngjié, rúguǒ bú shi shúliàn de zhōngwén shǐyòngzhě, tōngcháng huì juéde hěn nán.
史密斯先生:那你们小的时候是怎么学的呢? Shǐmìsī xiānsheng: Nà nǐmen xiǎo de shíhou shì zěnme xué de ne?
宋先生:先学最简单的,比如“一”,“上”,“下”,然后学习汉字的结构,比如左右结构,上下结构,简单的字组合在一起就是一个新的字,比如我刚才说的“忐忑”,就是两个上下结构的字,上面一个字,下面一个字。 Sòng xiānsheng: Xiān xué zuì jiǎndān de, bǐrú "yī" , "shàng" , "xià" , ránhòu xuéxí Hànzì de jiégòu, bǐrú zuǒyòu jiégòu, shàngxià jiégòu, jiǎndān de zì zǔhé zài yiqǐ jiù shi yí ge xīn de zì, bǐrú wǒ gāngcái shuō de "tǎntè", jiù shi liǎng ge shàngxià jiégòu de zì, shàngmian yí ge zì, xiàmian yí ge zì.
史密斯先生:但是这两个字看起来真的很像,我觉得有点难。我中文学了一段时间以后,就常常被看起来很像的词搞得很头疼。 Shǐmìsī xiānsheng: Dànshi zhè liǎng ge zì kànqǐlái zhēnde hěn xiàng, wǒ juéde yǒudiǎn nán. Wǒ zhōngwén xuéle yí duàn shíjiān yǐhòu, jiù chángcháng bèi kànqǐlái hěn xiàng de cí gǎo de hěn tóuténg.
宋先生:你现在认识多少个字了? Sòng xiānsheng: Nǐ xiànzài rènshi duōshao ge zì le?
史密斯先生:大概1000个吧。 Shǐmìsī xiānsheng: Dàgài yìqiān ge ba.
宋先生:很不错了,你要循序渐进,不能太着急。 Sòng xiānsheng: Hěn búcuòle, nǐ yào xúnxù jiànjìn, bù néng tài zháojí.
史密斯先生:是的,我觉得每天学三个最好,效率最高。 Shǐmìsī xiānsheng: Shì de, wǒ juéde měi tiān xué sān ge zuì hǎo, xiàolǜ zuì gāo.
宋先生:看来你已经找到诀窍了,那么加油啊!有什么问题可以来问我。Sòng xiānsheng: Kànlái nǐ yǐjīng zhǎodào juéqiào le, nàme jiāyóu a! Yǒu shénme wèntí kěyǐ lái wèn wǒ.
史密斯先生:我会的,谢谢你啦! Shǐmìsī xiānsheng: Wǒ huì de, xièxie nǐ la!
宋先生:不客气! Sòng xiānsheng: Bú kèqi!

Vocab and notes

字 zì ‘character’
意思 yìsi ‘meaning’
川 chuān ‘river’
表示 biǎoshì ‘represent’
河流 héliú ‘river’
水流 shuǐliú ‘stream’
之类 zhīlèi ‘and so on’
理解 lǐjiě ‘understand’
笔 bǐ ‘writing brush, pen; stroke (of a character)’
像 xiàng ‘be like/similar’
条 tiáo (measure word for long thin things)
平行 píngxíng ‘parallel’
小溪 xiǎoxī ‘brook, streamlet’
确实 quèshí ‘certainly’
所以 suǒyǐ ‘so’
象形字 xiàngxíng zì ‘pictogram, a character derived from a picture’
按照 ànzhào ‘according to’
现实事物 xiànshí shìwù ‘actual things’
对…观察 duì … guānchá ‘observation of …’
创造出来 chuàngzàochūlái ‘create (something out of)’
所有 suǒyǒu ‘all’
其实 qíshí ‘actually’
大多数 dàduōshù ‘most’
根据 gēnjù ‘according to’
举 jǔ ‘give (an example)’
例子 lìzi ‘example’
忐忑 tǎntè ‘perturbed’
词 cí ‘word’
由…组成 yóu … zǔchéng ‘is composed/formed of …’
七上八下 qī shàng bā xià ‘perturbed’
不安 bù'ān ‘uneasy’
特点 tèdiǎn ‘characteristic’
拟声字 nǐshēng zì ‘onomatopoeiac character’
比如 bǐrú ‘for example’
明确 míngquè ‘clear-cut, definite’
形容 xíngróng 'describe'
自然界 zìránjiè ‘natural world’
声音 shēngyīn ‘sound’
语气助词 yǔqì zhùcí ‘modal particle’
通常 tōngcháng ‘usually’
左右 zuǒyòu ‘right and left; about’
结构 jiégòu ‘structure’
一般 yìbān ‘generally’
口字旁 kǒuzipáng ‘the mouth radical’
读音 dúyīn ‘the reading (of a character)’
右半边 yòubànbiān ‘the right half’
跟…相似 gēn … xiāngsì ‘similar to’
觉得 juéde ‘feel, think (that)’
特别 tèbié ‘especially’
难 nán ‘difficult’, 难学 nánxué ‘difficult to learn’
因为 yīnwèi ‘because’
用法 yòngfǎ ‘usage’
总结 zǒngjié ‘to summarize’
熟练 shúliàn ‘practiced, proficient’
使用者 shǐyòngzhě ‘user’
那你们小的时候是怎么学的呢?Nà nǐmen xiǎo de shíhou shì zěnme xué de ne? ‘Well, how did you study when you were small/a child?’ Note the 是…的 shì … de construction putting the emphasis on ‘how’ not the verb. 呢 Ne softens a question with a question word in it.
简单 jiǎndān ‘simple’
组合在一起 zǔhé zài yìqǐ ‘combine together’
我刚才说的 wǒ gāngcái shuō de … ‘the … I was just speaking about’. 刚才 Gāngcái = 刚 gāng = 刚刚 gānggāng ‘just (done something)’
看起来 kànqǐlái ‘apparently, seem to be’
我中文学了一段时间以后… Wǒ zhōngwén xuéle yí duàn shíjiān yǐhòu … ‘After learning Chinese for some time …’ Note how 段 duàn (measure word for periods of time) comes after the verb and Specific 了 le, as it indicates time duration. (A point of time would go before the verb.)
常常 chángcháng ‘often’
被看起来很像的词搞得很头疼 bèi kànqǐlái hěn xiàng de cí gǎo de hěn tóuténg ‘have been given a headache by apparently very similar words’. Note the interesting use of the passive marker 被 bèi with 搞 gǎo ‘do’ which is informal for 弄 nòng ‘do’ here.
认识 rènshi ‘know (people, characters etc.)’
大概1000个吧。 Dàgài yìqiān ge ba. ‘About one thousand.’ Note how the ‘don’t know exactly’ 吧 ba reinforces 大概 dàgài ‘about.
不错 búcuò ‘not bad, good’
循序渐进 xúnxù jiànjìn ‘make progress step by step’
着急 zháojí ‘worry’
每天 měi tiān ‘every day’
效率最高 xiàolǜ zuì gāo ‘the efficiency is highest -> is most efficient’
看来 kànlái ‘it seems, apparently’
诀窍 juéqiào ‘secret, trick, knack, key’
加油 jiāyóu ‘do your best, go for it’

Hanzi

Mr Smith: Mr Song, may I ask you a question?
Mr Song: Of course. What’s the question?
Mr Smith: What does this character mean?
Mr Song: “川”. It means river, stream, or something like that.
Mr Smith: How should I understand this character?
Mr Song: Look, this character only has three strokes. Does it look like three horizontal streams?
Mr Smith: Indeed! So is this picture writing?
Mr Song: Yes. It was created based on observation of real things.
Mr Smith: Are all Chinese characters picture writing?
Mr Song: No. Actually, most Chinese characters were created based on their meanings.
Mr Smith: Can you give me an example?
Mr Song: For example, “忐忑”. This word consists of “上 (up)”, “下 (down)”, and “心 (heart)”. It means someone has butterflies in his stomach, very anxious.
Mr Smith: So vivid. Are there any other characteristics that Chinese characters have?
Mr Song: We also have onomatopoeia. For example, “啦”, “呀”. They do not have exact meanings. Some of them describe natural sounds, some are modal particles. These words normally have a left-right structure. the left hand side is normally a “口”. They have similar pronunciations to the characters on the right hand side.
Mr Smith: I feel that onomatopoeia are very difficult to learn.
Mr Song: I can understand. They do not have exact meanings, and it is hard to summarize the ways of using them. If you are not an experienced Chinese speaker, you’ll find it difficult.
Mr Smith: How did you learn Chinese when you were children?
Mr Song: Starting from the easiest ones, such as “一 (one)”, “上 (up)”, “下 (down)”. After that, we would learn the structures of Chinese characters, such as the up-down structure, and the left-right structure. Combining two simple characters together makes a new character. For example, “忐忑” I mentioned just now are two characters which have an up-down structure. One character is on the top and the other is on the bottom.
Mr Smith: But these two characters look similar. They are difficult for me. After learning Chinese for some time, similar characters always give me headaches.
Mr Song: How many characters do you know now?
Mr Smith: About 1000.
Mr Song: That’s very good. You should learn step by step and be patient.
Mr Smith: Yes. I think it’s best to learn three a day.
Mr Song: It seems that you’ve already found some tricks. You can do it! You can ask me if you have any questions.
Mr Smith: I will. Thank you!
Mr Song: You are welcome!

  • No labels