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个 Ge

This is the most general and common measure word:

For measuring people

一个人 yí ge rén 'a person'

一个朋友 yí ge péngyou 'a friend'

一个女孩 yí ge nǚhái 'a girl'

A: 你认识那个女孩吗? Nǐ rènshi nàge nǚhái ma?
'Do you know that girl?'
B: 对,她只是我一个朋友。 Duì, tā zhǐ shi wǒ yí ge péngyou.
'Yes, she is just a friend.'

For measuring fruits

一个苹果 yí ge píngguǒ 'an apple'

一个橘子 yí ge júzi 'a tangerine'

一个梨 yí ge lí 'a pear'

A: 那是一个苹果吗? Nà shì yí ge píngguǒ ma?
'Is that an apple?'
B: 不,那是个梨。 Bù, nà shì yí ge lí.
'No, it is a pear.'

For measuring goods

一个杯子 yí ge bēizi 'a cup'

一个灯泡 yí ge dēngpào 'a light bulb'

一个星球 yí ge xīngqiú 'a planet'

A: 换一个灯泡要多少钱? Huàn yí ge dēngpào yào duōshǎo qián?
'How much does it cost to change a light bulb?'
B: 五镑。 Wǔ bàng.
'Five pounds.'

For measuring time

一个月 yí ge yuè 'a month'

一个星期 yí ge xīngqī 'a week'

一个小时 yí ge xiǎoshí 'an hour'

通常一个月有四个星期。 Tōngcháng yí ge yuè yǒu sì ge xīngqī.
'Usually, a month has four weeks.'

For measuring abstract things

一个想法 yí ge xiǎngfǎ 'a thought'

一个意见 yí ge yìjiàn 'a suggestion'

一个梦想 yí ge mèngxiǎng 'a dream'

一个惊喜 yí ge jīngxǐ 'a surprise'

生日那天我收到一个惊喜。 Shēngrì nà tiān wǒ shōudào yí ge jīngxǐ.
'I got a surprise on my birthday.'

N.B

个 is originally Tone 4. It is usually pronounced in the Neutral Tone when used as a measure word, but it still has enough force to change the 一 yī to Tone 2.

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