This is the potential form of the resultative complement 出来 chūlái.
听得出来 Tīngdechūlái 'can tell by what is being said'
听得出来你嗓子哑了。 Tīngdechūlái nǐ sǎngzi yǎ le.
‘I can hear that you are hoarse.’
听得出来他很会唱歌。 Tīngdechūlái tā hěn huì chànggē.
‘I could tell (by hearing him) that he was good at singing.’
听得出来你来中国还不久。 Tīngdechūlái nǐ lái Zhōngguó hái bù jiǔ.
‘I can tell (from what you’re saying) that it’s not long since you came to China.’
他满嘴瞎话，我以为你听得出来。 Tā mǎnzuǐ-xiāhuà, wǒ yǐwéi nǐ tīngdechūlái.
‘I thought you could hear that he speaks a load of nonsense.’
听得出来他不是很欢迎我们。 Tīngdechūlái tā bú shì hěn huānyíng wǒmen.
‘I could tell that he isn’t very welcoming to us.’