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これは寿司です 。 Kore wa sushi desu. 'This is sushi.'

それは本です。 Sore wa hon desu. 'That's a book.'

あれはラーメンです。 Are wa raamen desu. 'That is ramen.'


これ kore 'this (thing)'. Cannot be followed by a noun.

それ sore 'that (thing nearby)'. Cannot be followed by a noun.

あれ are 'that (thing over there, away from both of us)'. Cannot be followed by a noun.

本 hon 'book'

社会人 shakaijin 'working adult' from 社会 shakai 'society' and 人 -jin 'person'. (- indicates an element that can't be used on its own.)


そこ soko 'there'. Often near the other person.

あそこ asoko 'over there'. Often away from both speaker and hearer.

トイレ toire 'toilet'

レストラン resutoran 'restaurant'. The u is devoiced, as it is in many cases when a word has been borrowed from English and there is no vowel in the original word.


Wa. Indicates the topic of the sentence. It is often left out if it is obvious. Note that it is written with は, not わ, for historical reasons.

Kore and koko. Note how Japanese often uses koko 'here' with places, where English uses 'this'. It's the same with そこ and あそこ.