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The topic controlled vocabulary is a list of the topic areas covered by the studies. It is a compilation of items from the MeSH and HASSET topic vocabularies. The topic vocabulary has two levels. Level 2 topics are subsets of the Level 1 topics.

CLOSER Discovery maps each question and each variable to a topic (see how to Apply topics for more details). This allows you to refine your search results using the topic you are interested in or browse questions and variables with a particular topic using the explore function.  

The table below provides descriptions of each of the topics and shows the relationship between the level 1 and level 2 topics. The description also includes source of the definition which have been taken from MeSH, HASSET, Oxford online, WHO, ONS, National Academy on Women's Health Medical Education, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Urdang (1988), Webster (1961), Stedman (1995) and Timmreck (1987). 

IDColectica CodeLevel 1Level 1 description IDColectica Code

Level 2

[URL (SKOS Concept)]

Level 2 description Level 2 Use for Level 2 Narrower terms
00None






1101DemographicsStatistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure. (MeSH)1.110101Place of birth 

The place where a person was born. (Oxford online)

Country of birth. (HASSET)Father's place of birth, Household head's place of birth, Mother's place of birth, Spouse's place of birth. (HASSET)
1.210102Gender

A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role. (MeSH)

Sex. (HASSET)Male, Female. (HASSET)
1.310103Ethnic group A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships. (MeSH)

Racial groups, Ethnicity, Race. (HASSET)

Arabs, Asians, Black people, Ethnic minorities, Indigenous populations, Mixed race, North American Indians, Spouse's ethnic group, White people. (HASSET)

1.410104Language(s) spokenLanguage = The method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way. (Oxford online)

Knowledge of languages, Language use, Languages spoken. (HASSET)

International languages, Language groups, Language of instruction, Language variations, Languages used at home, Languages used at work, Minority languages, Mother tongue, National languages, Official languages, Predominant languages, Second languages. (HASSET)

1.610106Location A particular place or position. (Oxford online)Place. (HASSET)

Location of farms, Location of industry, Place of birth, Place of death, Place of marriage, Workplace. (HASSET)

1.710107Age

The length of time that a person has lived or a thing has existed. (Oxford online)

Year of birth. (HASSET)Legal age, Retirement age, School-leaving age, Spouse's age. (HASSET)
2102Housing and local environmentHousing = Living facilities for humans.2.110201Housing Living facilities for humans. (MeSH)Accommodation. (HASSET)

Apartments, Building standards, Communal establishments, Home sharing, Hotels, Houses, Housing age, Housing conditions, Housing for the elderly, Housing needs, Lodging houses, Mobile homes, Private housing, Refugee camps, Rented accommodation, Rooms, Second homes, Sheltered housing, Slums, Social housing, Squats, Student housing, Temporary housing, Tied housing, Vacant housing. (HASSET)



Environment = The external elements and conditions which surround, influence and affect the life and development of an organism or population. (MeSH)2.210202Neighbourhood A district or community within a town or city. (Oxford online)

2.310203Travel and transport Travel = Make a journey, typically of some length. (Oxford online)

Travel: Journeys, Voyages, Trips. (HASSET)

Travel: Air travel, Business trips, Commuting, International travel, Railway travel, Road travel, Sea travel. (HASSET)

Transport = Take or carry (people or goods) from one place to another by means of a vehicle, aircraft or ship. (Oxford online)Transport: Mode of transport, Transportation. (HASSET)

Transport: Air transport, Freight transport, Inland water transport, Public transport, Railway transport, Road transport, Rural transport, Sea transport, Student transportation, Transport safety, Urban transport. (HASSET)
2.410204Environmental exposure The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical or biological agents in the environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms or toxic chemicals. (MeSH)

Exposure to noise, Exposure to the sun, Mobile phone radiation, Occupational exposure, Passive smoking. (HASSET)

2.510205Residential mobilityFrequent change of residence, either in the same city or town, or between cities, states or communities (U.S. National Library of Medicine)

Moving house, Housing history, Length of residence. (HASSET)

Leaving home (youth). (HASSET)
3103Physical health Health relating to the body as opposed to the mind. (Oxford online)3.110301Cardiovascular system The heart and the blood vessels by which blood is pumped and circulated through the body. (MeSH)Circulatory system. (HASSET)

Blood Vessels, Blood-Air Barrier, Blood-Aqueous Barrier, Blood-Brain Barrier, Blood-Nerve Barrier, Blood-Retinal Barrier, Blood-Testis Barrier, Glomerular Filtration Barrier, Glymphatic System, Heart. (MeSH)

3.210302Musculoskeletal system The muscles, bones (bone and bones), and cartilage of the body.Locomotory system. (HASSET)

Aponeurosis, Cartilage, Fascia, Ligaments, Muscles, Skeleton, Tendons. (MeSH)

3.310303Respiratory system The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about. (MeSH)

Larynx, Lung, Nose, Pharynx, Pleura, Respiratory Mucosa, Trachea. (MeSH)

3.410304Nervous systemThe entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia and plexuses. (Stedman, 1995)Neurological system. (HASSET)Sensory system. (HASSET)
3.510305Digestive system A group of organs stretching from the mouth to the anus serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the gastrointestinal tract and the accessory glands (liver, bilary tract and pancreas). (MeSH)Gastrointestinal system. (HASSET)
3.610306Urogenital systemAll the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of urine. It includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina, and clitoris in women and the testes, seminal vesicles, prostate, seminal ducts and penis in men.  (MeSH)

Genitalia, Urinary Tract. (MeSH)

3.710307Endocrine system The systems of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the endocrine glands, included are the chromaffin system and the neurosecretory systems. (MeSH)

Chromaffin System, Endocrine Glands, Enteroendocrine Cells, Neurosecretory Systems. (MeSH)


3.810308Hemic and immune systems Hemic = relating to the blood or circulatory system. (Oxford online)Organs involved in the production of blood, including the cellular and the molecular components essential in providing defense against foreign organisms or substances. (MeSH)

Blood, Hematopoietic System, Immune System. (MeSH)

Immune system = the organs responsible for immunity. The primary lymphoid organs are the thymus and the bone marrow; the secondary lymphoid organs and the lymph nodes and lymphoid aggregates (spleen, tonsils, gastrointestinal lymph tissue and Peyer's patches). (Oxford online)
3.910309Hearing, vision, speechHearing = The faculty of perceiving sounds. (Oxford online)Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing acoustic stimulation to the central nervous system. It is also called audition. (MeSH)Hearing: Bone Conduction, Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous. (MeSH)
Vision = The faculty or state of being able to see. (Oxford online)Vision: The process in which light signals are transformed by the photoreceptor cells into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain. (MeSH)

Vision: Color Vision, Mesopic Vision, Night Vision, Phosphenes, Vision, Entoptic. (MeSH)

Speech = The expression of or the ability to express thoughts and feelings by articulate sounds. (Oxford online)Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols. (MeSH)

Speech: Speech Acoustics, Speech Intelligibility. (MeSH)

3.1010310Oral/dental health The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease. (MeSH)

3.1110311Skin diseases | Dermatology 

Skin diseases = Diseases involving the Dermis Dermis or  Epidermis. (MeSH)


Skin diseases: Dermatitis, Psoriasis, Skin cancer. (HASSET)

Dermatology = the medical speciality concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders. (MeSH)

3.1210312Congenital and malformations Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero. (MeSH)

Birth defects, Congenital disorders, Congenital abnormalities. (HASSET)

Hydrocephalus, Nervous system malformations, Sickle cell anemia, Spinal muscular atrophy. (HASSET)
3.1310313Cancer New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms. (MeSH)
Brain tumours, Breast cancer, Cervical cancer, Lung cancer, Skin cancer. (HASSET)
3.1410314Mortality All deaths reported in a given population. (MeSH)Number of deaths. (HASSET)

Infant mortality, Maternal mortality. (HASSET)

3.1510315Reproductive healthWithin the framework of WHO's definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. (WHO)The state of the reproductive health system when functioning optimally without evidence of disease, disorders, or deficiencies. (MeSH)Birth control, Childbirth, Fertility, Maternity care, Menopause, Menstruation, Pregnancy, Puberty. (HASSET)
3.1610316Women's health A broad category of illnesses and health conditions associated with being female. Women's health is devoted to facilitating the preservation of wellness and prevention of illness in women and includes screening, diagnosis and management of conditions that are unique in women, are more common in women, are more serious in women, have manifestations, risk factors or interventions that are different in women. Women's health also recognizes the importance of the study of gender differences, recognizes multidisciplinary team approaches, includes the diversity of women's health needs over the life cycle, and how these needs reflect differences in race, class, ethnicity, culture, sexual preference, and levels of education and access to medical care, and includes the empowerment of women, as for all patients, to be informed participants in their own health care. (National Academy on Women's Health Medical Education)The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women. (MeSH)Maternal Health (MeSH)
3.1710317Accidents and injuries Accidents = Unexpected and unintentional events, typically resulting in damage or injury. (MeSH)
Accidents: Accidents at work, Accidents in the home, Fire, Nuclear accidents, Transport accidents. (HASSET)
Wounds and Injuries = Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity. (MeSH)Injuries: Trauma (physical), Wounds. (HASSET)

Injuries: Industrial injuries, Shell-shock, Sunburn. (HASSET)

3.1810318Allergies Hypersensitivity = Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen. (MeSH)

Hypersensitivities
Hay fever. (HASSET)

Drug Hypersensitivity, Environmental Illness, Hypersensitivity - Delayed, Hypersensitivity - Immediate, Immune Complex Diseases, Kounis Syndrome, Latex Hypersensitivity, Wissler's Syndrome. (MeSH)

3.1910319Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. (MeSH)

Aneurysm, Infected,Arthritis, Infectious,Bone Diseases, Infectious, Cardiovascular Infections, Catheter-Related Infections, Coinfection, Communicable Diseases, Community-Acquired Infections,Cross Infection, Eye Infections, Focal Infection, Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative, Intraabdominal Infections, Laboratory Infection, Ludwig's Angina, Opportunistic Infections, Pelvic Infection, Pregnancy Complications - Infectious, Prosthesis-Related Infections, Reproductive Tract Infections, Respiratory Tract Infections, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Skin Diseases, Infectious, Soft Tissue Infections, Suppuration, Toxemia, Urinary Tract Infections, Wound Infection. (MeSH)

3.2010320AnthropometryThe technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body. (MeSH)

Body Weights and Measures, Cephalometry, Odontometry, Pelvimetry. (MeSH)

3.2110321Physical characteristics Pertaining to the body, rather than the mind. (Oxford Online)

3.2210322Physical functioning 


3.2310323General health The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures. (MeSH)

4104Mental health and mental processesMental health = A person’s condition with regard to their psychological and emotional well-being. Mental process = A series of actions or steps taken in order to achieve a particular end, relating to the mind. (Oxford Online)4.110401Mental disorders Mental disorders comprise a broad range of problems, with different symptoms. However, they are generally characterized by some combination of abnormal thoughts, emotions, behaviour and relationships with others. Examples are schizophrenia, depression, intellectual disabilities and disorders due to drug abuse. Most of these disorders can be successfully treated. (WHO)

Psychiatric disorders, Psychiatric illnesses, Mental illnesses, Mental diseases, Psychiatric diseases. (HASSET)

Behavioural disorders, Cognition disorders, Emotional disturbances, Memory disorders, Nervous breakdown
Neurotic disorders, Personality disorders, Psychotic disorders. (HASSET)

4.210402Personality | Temperament 

Personality = behaviour - response patterns that characterize the individual.

Personality: Character. (HASSET)

Personality: Human nature, Personality traits. (HASSET)

Temperament = Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes. (MeSH)

4.310403Wellbeing The state of being comfortable, healthy, or happy. (Oxford Online)

Wellbeing(Society): Wellbeing (society), Societal well-being (HASSET)

Big society (policy), Family cohesion, Human rights, Quality of life, Social capital, Social care, Social justice,
Social support, Sustainability, Trust, Values (HASSET)

4.410404Emotions Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties. (MeSH)Emotional status: Moods, Emotions (HASSET)

Affect, Anger, Anxiety, Apathy, Bereavement, Boredom,
Courage, Disgust, Euphoria, Expressed Emotion, Fear, Forgiveness, Frustration, Guilt, Happiness, Hate, Hope, Hostility, Jealousy, Loneliness, Love, Pleasure, sadness. (MeSH)

4.510405Cognitive function A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD. (MeSH)

5105Health careThe organized provision of medical care to individuals or a community. (Oxford Online)5.110501Health services utilisation The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others. (MeSH)
Health Equity. (MeSH)
5.210502Hospital admissions

The process of accepting patients into hospital care; numbers of patients admitted to hospital. (HASSET)

Patient admissions (HASSET)
5.310503Immunisations Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATIONinvolves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTESor their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow). (MeSH)

Immunization, Passive, Immunization Schedule, Immunization, Secondary Immunotherapy, Active (MeSH)

5.410504Medications Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form. (MeSH)

Medicines, Medicinal drug use. (HASSET)

Anaesthetics, Antibiotics, Central nervous system drugs, Eugeroics. (HASSET)

5.510505Complementary therapies Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES;DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment. (MeSH)

Fringe medicine, Complementary medicine, Complementary health care, Alternative medicine, Alternative therapies. (HASSET)

Acupuncture, Chiropractic, Folk medicine, Herbal medicine, Homeopathy, Naturopathy, Osteopathy,
Reflexology, Spiritual healing. (HASSET)

5.610506Health insurance Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading. (MeSH)Medical insurance (HASSET)

Children's Health Insurance Program, For-Profit Insurance Plans, Health Benefit Plans, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Insurance, Accident, Insurance, Dental, Insurance, Health, Reimbursement, Insurance, Hospitalization, Insurance, Long-Term Care, Insurance, Major Medical, Insurance, Medigap, Insurance, Nursing Services, Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services, Insurance, Physician Services, Insurance, Psychiatric, Insurance, Surgical, Insurance, Vision, Managed Care Programs, Managed Competition, Medical Savings Accounts, Medicare, National Health Insurance, United States, Not-For-Profit Insurance Plans, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Prepaid Health Plans, Prior Authorization, Single-Payer System, Value-Based Health Insurance, Value-Based Purchasing. (MeSH)

6106Health behaviourBehaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural. (MeSH)6.110601Diet and nutrition Diet = The kinds of food that a person, animal, or community habitually eats.Diet = Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal. (MeSH)

Diet, Carbohydrate Loading, Diet, Diabetic, Diet, Atherogenic, Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted, Diet Fads, Diet, Cariogenic, Diet, Fat-Restricted, Diet, Gluten-Free, Diet, High-Fat, Diet, High-Protein, Diet, Mediterranean, Diet, Paleolithic, Diet, Protein-Restricted, Diet, Reducing, Diet, Sodium-Restricted, Diet, Vegetarian, Diet, Western, Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension, Energy Intake, Fasting, Healthy Diet, Portion Size, Serving Size. (MeSH)

Nutrition = The process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth. (Oxford Online)

6.210602Physical activityPhysical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure. (MeSH)
Gym attendance. (HASSET)
6.310603SleepA readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility. (MeSH)

Dreams, Sleep Deprivation, Sleep Hygiene, Sleep Latency, Sleep Stages. (MeSH)

6.410604Smoking Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning Tobacco. (MeSH) (HASSET)

Pipe Smoking, Smoking Reduction,
Non-Tobacco Products smoking, Tobacco Smoking, Vaping. (MeSH)

6.510605Alcohol consumption Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking. (MeSH)Alcohol use (HASSET)

Alcoholic drinks, Drinking behaviour. (HASSET)

6.610606Substance abuseSubstance use  = Any substance taken for its subjective effect that may cause unexpected toxicity. (HASSET)

Alcohol use, Drug use, Polydrug use, Solvent abuse, Vaping. (HASSET)

6.710607Risk taking Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her. (MeSH)
Gambling. (MeSH)
6.810609Sexual behaviour The expression of sexuality that leads to sexual health and well-being or to sexual behaviour that puts people at risk or makes them vulnerable to sexual and reproductive ill-health. (HASSET)

Safe sex, Underage sex. (HASSET)

7107Family and social networks Family = A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children. Social networks = Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc. (MeSH)7.110701Home life A person’s family, personal relationships, and domestic interests considered as a whole. (Oxford Online)

7.210702Household composition One person living alone; or a group of people (not necessarily related) living together. (ONS)Households, Household size (HASSET)Single occupancy households (HASSET)
7.310703Marital status A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc. (MeSH)

Civil partners, Cohabiting, Divorced, Married
Singles, Surviving civil partners, Widowed, Widowhood. (HASSET)

7.410704Family members and relations Family = A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children. (MeSH)Family members: Family relatives, Relatives, Kinship. (HASSET)

Adopted children, Cousins, Foster children, Grandchildren, Grandparents, Offspring, Parents
Siblings, Spouses, Stepchildren (HASSET)

Family Relations = Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family. (MeSH)

Family Conflict, Intergenerational Relations,
Maternal Behavior, Maternal Deprivation,
Parent-Child Relations, Parenting, Paternal Behavior,
Paternal Deprivation, Sibling Relations. (MeSH)

7.510705Friends Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts. (MeSH)

7.610706Childcare Care of children by parents, guardians or other primary carers. (HASSET) 

Childcare, Child rearing. (HASSET) 

Child safety, Toilet training. (HASSET) 

7.710707Child welfare Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child. (MeSH)

Child welfare services, Child protection. (HASSET) 

Child Advocacy, Child Care, Child Custody. (MeSH)

7.810708Social support Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc. (MeSH)
Loneliness. (HASSET) 
7.910709Leisure activities Voluntary use of free time for activities outside the daily routine. (MeSH)

Holidays, Recreation, Relaxation. (MeSH)

7.110710Social capitalThe expected benefits derived from the cooperation between individuals and groups. (MeSH)

Citizenship, Community identification, Community life, Community participation, Social economy, Social exclusion, Social participation. (HASSET) 

7.1110711TechnologyThe application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation. (MeSH)Technology and innovation. (HASSET)  

Biotechnology, Communications, Information and communications technology, Innovation, Nanotechnology, Research and development. (HASSET)

8108Education Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study. (MeSH)8.110801Qualifications Abilities, aptitudes, achievements (usually academic) etc. that suit an individual to particular positions or tasks. (HASSET) 

Educational certificates, Occupational qualifications (HASSET)

8.310803Further Education | Higher Education FE:A sector which encompasses all post‐compulsory education and training, with the exception of higher education. Although a semantic distinction is made between further and adult education, FE in its broadest terms encompasses this, too. HE: Programmes of study which lead to advanced qualifications such as those at National Qualifications Framework (NQF) level 5 or 6 and above, such as degrees and diplomas. These are usually offered in higher education institutions (HEIs) such as universities, but may also form part of the provision of further education (FE) colleges, as in the case of foundation degrees. The higher education sector is largely comprised of universities and university colleges, and is distinct from the further education sector in terms of funding and purpose. The provision of higher education, however, is an area in which there is some overlap, since HEIs may accredit FE colleges to deliver some higher‐level, vocationally related courses. (Oxford Online)

8.410804Training The action of teaching a person or animal a particular skill or type of behaviour. (Oxford Online)

Further training, Information technology training, Occupational training, Retraining, Training abroad, Training methods. (HASSET)

8.510805Basic skills Defines basic skills as ‘The ability to read, write and speak in English or Welsh, and to use mathematics at a level necessary to function and progress at work and in society in general’. Although initiatives have covered all age groups since the creation of the Basic Skills Agency in 1995, the term is most commonly used to refer to the skills of adults rather than of those under 19 years old, where General Certificate of Secondary Education and key skills qualifications tend to define levels of skill. (Oxford Online)

Skill: Aptitude, Ability, Talent. (HASSET)

Academic ability, Numeracy, Personal efficacy, Teaching skills. (HASSET)

8.610806Adult education Courses of study offered for learners over the age of compulsory schooling. Sometimes used synonymously with evening classes, adult education encompasses a very wide range of provision, including prison education, education in the armed forces, adult literacy classes, and church‐based learning groups, as well as local authority and Workers’ Educational Association provision. (Oxford Online)

8.710807Learning difficulties Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include dyslexia, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia. (HASSET) Learning difficulties. (HASSET) Dyslexia. (HASSET)
8.810808Pre-school Relating to the time before a child is old enough to go to school. (Oxford Online)

8.910809Cognitive functionCognitive = related to cognition. Cognition = The mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. (Oxford Online)

8.110810Cognitive skills Skills acquired through cognition. (Oxford Online)

8.1110811Non-cognitive skills A state of mind is non-cognitive if it involves no cognition or knowledge of any kind. (Oxford Online)

8.1210812School engagement 


8.1310813Education aspirations Aspiration = A hope or ambition of achieving something. (Oxford Online)

8.1410814Lifelong learning A form of or approach to education which promotes the continuation of learning throughout adult life, especially by making educational material and instruction available through libraries, colleges, or information technology. (Oxford Online)

Life-long learning, Continuous learning, Lifelong learning, Life-long education, Continuing education, Life long learning, Life long education. (HASSET)

8.1510815Primary schooling


8.1610816Secondary schooling


9109Employment and incomeEmployment = The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary. Income = Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital. (MeSH)9.110901Occupation | Employment Occupation = Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living. (MeSH)Occupation = Job categories. (HASSET)

Occupation = Factory occupations, Father's occupation, Household head's occupation, Mother's occupation, Occupational status, Professional occupations, Spouse's occupation. (HASSET)

Employment = The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary. (MeSH)Employment = Jobs, Work. (HASSET)Employment = Landestine employment, Employment abroad, Employment history, Employment opportunities, Employment programmes, Employment services, Home-based work, Job changing, Job creation, Job losses, Job sharing, Job vacancies, Military service, Offshore employment, Research work, Return-to-work incentives, Sheltered employment, Spouse's employment, Student employment, Subsidiary employment, Telework, Voluntary work, Women's employment, Youth employment. (HASSET)
9.210902Social classificationA stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income. (MeSH)

9.310903IncomeRevenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital. (MeSH)Revenue. (HASSET)Family income, Household income, Interest (finance), Pensions, Pocket money, Profits, Royalties, Spouse's income, Turnover, Unearned income, Wages. (HASSET)
9.410904Finances The monetary resources and affairs of a state, organization, or person. (Oxford Online)

Capital, Capital movements, Communication finance, Debts, Financial commitments, Financial compensation, Financial expectations, Financial incentives,Financial institutions, Financial management, Financial markets, Financial resources, Financing, Gambling losses, Household budgets, Insurance, Investment, Land and property finance, Monetary economics, Money, Motor vehicle value, Overseas transactions, Pension contributions, Personal finance management, Public finance, Rebates, Refunds, Research finance, Savings
Shares, Subsidies, Treasury bills. (HASSET)

9.510905Assets A useful or valuable thing or person. (Oxford Online)
Liquidity. (HASSET)
9.610906Consumption | Expenditure The action of using up a resource. The action of spending funds. (Oxford Online)

Expenditure: Spending. (HASSET)

Consumption: Purchasing. (HASSET)

Expenditure: Expenditure cuts, Gross national expenditure, Methods of payment, Payments, Public expenditure. (HASSET)

9.710907Pensions A regular payment made by the state to people of or above the official retirement age and to some widows and disabled people. (Oxford Online)

Pension benefits, Private pensions, State retirement pensions. (HASSET)

9.810908Benefits | Welfare


10110Expectation, attitudes and beliefsExpectation = A strong belief that something will happen or be the case | Attitude=A settled way of thinking or feeling about something: Belief = An acceptance that something exists or is true, especially one without proof. (Oxford Online)10.111001Social attitudesAttitude = The way in which a person views and evaluates something or someone. Attitudes determine whether people like or dislike things – and therefore how they behave towards them. Attitude is traditionally divided into cognitive, behavioural, and affective components, although the main emphasis now tends to fall on defining attitude in terms of affect – the person's feelings towards the object, brand, etc. Is the brand good or bad? Is it likeable? The importance of the cognitive and behavioural components is still accepted, but they are no longer regarded as critical components. (Oxford Online)

10.211002PoliticsActivities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc. (MeSH)Political Science. (HASSET)Elections, Electoral systems, Internal politics, International politics, Minority governments, Party conventions, Party systems, Political accountability, Political behaviour, Political candidacy, Political change, Political crises, Political ecology, Political finance, Political groups, Political indicators, Political issues, Political majorities, Political participation, Political power, Political representation, Political theory, Referendums, Student politics. (HASSET)
10.311003Religion A set of beliefs concerning the true nature, cause and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Urdang, 1988)
Church administration, Religiosity, Religious behaviour, Religious beliefs, Religious conflict, Religious experience, Religious extremism, Religious groups, Religious institutions, Religious movements, Religious personnel, Religious reform, Religious segregation, Religious services. (HASSET)
11111Child developmentThe continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE. (MeSH)11.111101Infant feedingThe provision of breast milk, or a bottle substitute, for a number of months after birth and thereafter nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods until the infant or young child is fully weaned. (HASSET)

Baby food, Infant nutrition, Weaning. (HASSET)

Bottle-feeding, Breast-feeding. (HASSET)
11.211102Language and vocabularyThe gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences. The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (Webster, 1961)Language: Systematic means of communicating through the use of signs, gestures, words, and/or auditory symbols. (HASSET)Language: Language development, Languages, Multilingualism. (HASSET)
Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed). (MeSH)
11.311103Parenting Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behaviour of the parent. (MeSH)

11.411104Developmental milestonesSkills gained by a developing child, which should be achieved by a given age. Examples of such milestones include smiling by six weeks and sitting unsupported by eight months. (Oxford Online)

12112Life eventsAny significant event in a person's life that may have beneficial or detrimental effects on social relationships and status. (Oxford Online)12.111201RetirementThe state of being retired from one's position or occupation. (MeSH)

Retired persons, Retired. (HASSET)

Early retirement. (HASSET)
13113Omics Suffix forming nouns used to denote rigorous, systematic analyses of the omes: e.g., proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics. (Oxford Online)13.111301Genetics The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman,1995)Genetic research. (HASSET)

Natural selection, Pharmacogenetics, Plant genetics. (HASSET)



Used for mechanisms of heredity and the genetics of organisms, for the genetic basis of normal and pathologic states, and for the genetic aspects of endogenous chemicals. It includes biochemical and molecular influence on genetic material. (MeSH)
13.211302GenomicsThe systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms. (MeSH)
Epigenomics, Glycomics, HapMap Project, Human Genome Project, Metagenomics, Nutrigenomics, Proteomics, Proteogenomics. (MeSH)
13.311303TranscriptomicsThe study of transcriptomes and their functions. (Oxford Online)

13.411304Metabolomics The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions. (MeSH)

13.511305Epigenetics The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes. (MeSH)

13.611306Proteomics The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms. (MeSH)
Proteogenomics. (MeSH)
14114PregnancyThe status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH. (MeSH)14.111401ChildbirthThe concept of birth. (HASSET)

Birth, Labour (birth). (HASSET)

Miscarriage, Multiple births, Premature births, Still-birth. (HASSET)

14.211402Infant mortalityPostnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth. (MeSH)
Perinatal Mortality. (MeSH)
15115Administration






References

Stedman, T.L (1995)  Stedman's medical dictionary (26th ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Timmreck, T.C. (1987) Dictionary of Health Services Management (2d ed.). National Health Publishing Co.

Urdang, L. (1988) Random House Collegiate Dictionary (rev. ed.). Random House.

Webster, N. (1961). Webster's third new international dictionary of the English language unabridged. Merriam.