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Name and Version:  IMAGE framework 3.0

Model developer and main users: PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency/ Utrecht University

Model objective: 
IMAGE is an ecological-environmental model framework that simulates the environmental consequences
of human activities worldwide. The
objective of the IMAGE model is to explore the long-
term dynamics and impacts of global changes that result. More specifically, the model aims 1) to
analyse interactions between human development and the natural environment to gain better insight
into the processes of global environmental change; 2) to identify response strategies to global
environmental change based on assessment of options and 3) to indicate key interlinkages and
 associated levels of uncertainty in processes of global environmental change.

Model concept: 
The IMAGE framework can best be described as a geographically explicit
assessment, integrated assessment simulation model, focusing a detailed
representation of relevant processes with respect to human use of energy,
land and water in relation to relevant environmental processes..

Solution Method:
Recursive dynamic solution method

Base year: 1970

Time Horizon, and time steps:
2100, 1-5 year time step

Model anticipation: 
Simulation modelling framework, without foresight. However,
a simplified version of the energy/climate part of the model (called FAIR)
can be run prior to running the framework to obtain data for climate policy simulations.

Coverage and regions:
Global. No. of regions = 26

Canada, USA, Mexico, Rest of Central America, Brazil, Rest of
South America, Northern Africa, Western Africa, Eastern Africa,
Southern Africa, Western Europe, Central Europe, Turkey,
Ukraine +, Asian-Stan, Russia +, Middle East, India +, Korea,
China +, Southeastern Asia, Indonesia +, Japan, Oceania, Rest of
South Asia, Rest of South Africa

Policy implementation: 
Key areas where policy responses can be introduced in the model are:

  • Climate policy
  • Energy policies (air pollution, access and energy security)
  • Land use policies (food)
  • Specific policies to project biodiversity
  • Measures to reduce the imbalance of the nitrogen cycle

Economic sectors (represented separately in terms of value added): 
☐ Agriculture 
☐ Industry 
☐ Energy 
☐ Transport
☐ Services 
☐ Other
If other, please list or give number. If no separate sectors please give brief explanation of economy:
No explicit economy representation in monetary units. Explicit economy
representation in therms of energy is modelled (for the agriculture,
industry, energy, transport and built environment sectors)

Exogenous Model Drivers: 
x Exogenous GDP
☐ Total Factor Productivity
☐ Labour Productivity
☐ Capital Technical progress
☐ Energy Technical progress
☐ Materials Technical progress 
x GDP per capita
☐ Other

If other types or endogenous drivers, please describe:
- Energy demand
- Renewable price
- Fossil fuel prices
- Carbon prices
- Technology progress
- Energy intensity
- Preferences
- Learning by doing
- Agricultural demand
- Population
- Value added

x GDP per capita (exogenous)
x Income distribution in a region (exogenous)
x Urbanisation rate (exogenous)
☐ Education level
☐ Labour participation rate
☐ Other

 Behaviour and behavioural change:  
In the energy model, substitution among technologies is described in the model
using the multinomial logit formulation. The multinomial logit model implies that
the market share of a certain technology or fuel type depends on costs
relative to competing technologies. The option with the lowest costs gets the
 largest largest market share, but in most cases not the full market. We interpret the
latter as a  representation of heterogeneity in the form of specific market niches for every
technology or fuel.

Cost measures:
☐ GDP loss
☐ Welfare loss
☐ Consumption loss 
x Area under MAC 
x Energy system costs
☐ Other

x Coal  x Oil 
x Gas  x Uranium
☐ Electricity
x Bioenergy crops x Food crops
☐ Capital 
x Emissions permits 
x Non-energy goods
☐ Other

If other, please briefly describe:
- Bioenergy products
- Livestock products

Resource Use: 
x Coal 
x Oil 
x Gas 
x Uranium 
x Biomass 
x Other

If others, please give brief details or number:
- Distinction between traditional and modern biomass

Electricity technologies:  
x Coal x Gas 
x Oil  x Nuclear 
x Biomass x Wind 
x Solar PV  x CCS 
x Others

If others, please give brief details or number:
- Offshore wind
- Coal (conventional; IGCC; IGCC+CCS; IGCC+CHP; IGCC+CHP+CCS)
- Oil (conventional; OGCC; OGCC + CCS; OGCC+CHP; OGCC+CHP+CCS)
- NG (conventional; CC; CC + CCS; CC+ CHP; CC + CHP+CCS)
- Biomass (Conventional, CC, CC+CCS, CC+CHP, CC+CHP+CCS)

Heat and other conversion technologies: 
☐ Heat pumps 
x Hydrogen
☐ Fuel to gas
☐ Fuel to liquid
☐ Others

Grid and infrastructure:  
x Electricity
☐ Gas
☐ Heat
☐ CO2 
x H2
☐ Other

Energy Technology Substitution: 
x Discrete technology choices 
x Expansion and decline constraints 
x System integration constraints
☐ Other

Energy Service sectors 
x Transportation 
x Industry 
x Residential and commercial

Please list land use types: 
- Forest
- Grassland
- Cropland
- Abandoned land
- Protected land

Other Resources 
x Water 
x Metals (steel)
x Cement
☐ Other

Emissions and climate

Greenhouse Gases coverage: 
          x CO2  x CH4 x N2O x HFCs x CFCs x SFs

Pollutants and non-GHG forcing agents:  
           x NOx x SOx x BC x OC x Ozone x Other

If other, please specify:
- NH3
- CO 

Modelling of Climate indicators: 
x CO2e concentration (ppm)   
x Radiative Forcing (Wm2
x Temperature change (Co)  
☐ Climate damages $ or equivalent