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Similar to other IMAGE components, TIMER is a simulation model. The results obtained depend on a single set of deterministic algorithms, according to which the system state in any future year is derived entirely from previous system states. In this respect, TIMER differs from most macro-economic models, which let the system evolve on the basis of minimising cost or maximising utility under boundary conditions. As such, TIMER can be compared to energy simulation models, such as POLES (Criqui et al., 2003) and GCAM (Thomson et al., 2011).

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Figure 3.1: TIMER, the energy demand and supply model in IMAGE 3.0 (from the IMAGE 3.0 documentation)

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