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Comment: adjusted reference card to MESSAGE V.4

Name and Version:  MESSAGE V.54

Model developer and main users: IIASA

Model objective:
MESSAGE at its core is a technology-detailed energy-engineering optimization model used for energy planning. Through linkage to macro-economic, land-use and climate models it is capable of taking into account important feedbacks and limitations in these areas outside of the energy system.

Model concept:
Hybrid model (energy engineering partial equilibrium model soft-linked to general equilibrium model)

Solution Method:
hybrid model (linear program optimization for the energy systems module, non-linear program optimization for the macro-economic module)

Base year: 2005

Time Horizon, and time steps:
1990-2110, 5 year time steps until 2010, 10 year time steps after 2010

Model anticipation:  Myopic/Perfect Foresight

MESSAGE can be run both with perfect foresight and myopically.

Coverage and regions:
Global. 11 regions (plus global region with trade, bunker fuel  demand and nuclear fuel processing)
List of regions/countries:
AFR - Sub-saharan Africa
CPA - Centrally Planned Asia and China
EEU - Eastern Europe
FSU - Former Soviet Union
LAM - Latin America and the Caribbean
MEA - Middle East and North Africa
NAM - North America
PAO - Pacific OECD
PAS - Other Pacific Asia
SAS - South Asia
WEU - Western Europe

Policy implementation:
 GHG and energy taxes
 GHG emission cap and permits trading
 fuel subsidies and micro-financing (for energy access analysis)
 regulation: capacity, production and share targets


Economic sectors (represented separately in terms of value added):

☐ Agriculture
☐ Industry
☐ Energy
☐ Transport
☐ Services
 X Other
If other, please list or give number. If no separate sectors please give brief explanation of economy:
The macro-economic part MACRO contains a single sector representation of the entire economy.

Exogenous Model Drivers:
☐ Exogenous GDP
☐ Total Factor Productivity
 X Labour Productivity
☐ Capital Technical progress
 X Energy Technical progress
☐ Materials Technical progress
☐ GDP per capita
☐ Other

If other types or endogenous drivers, please describe:e.g. learning-by-doing


 X GDP per capita
☐ Income distribution in a region
 X Urbanisation rate
 X Education level
☐ Labour participation rate
☐ Other
If other, please briefly describe:

 Behaviour and behavioural change:
Non-monetary factors of decision making (e.g., behavioral impacts) are represented in MESSAGE via so-called inconvenience costs. These are generally included in the consumer-dominated energy end-use sectors (transportation sector, residential and commercial sector) and are particularly relevant in the modeling of energy access in developing countries.

Cost measures:
 X GDP loss
☐ Welfare loss
 X Consumption loss
☐ Area under MAC
 X Energy system costs
☐ Other
If other, please briefly describe:

 X Coal  X Oil
 X Gas  X Uranium
 X Electricity
 X Bioenergy crops ☐ Food crops
☐ Capital
 X Emissions permits
☐ Non-energy goods
☐ Other

If other, please briefly describe:

Resource Use:
 X Coal
 X Oil
 X Gas
 X Uranium
 X Biomass
☐ Other

If others, please give brief details or number:

Electricity technologies:
 X Coal
 X Gas
 X Oil 
 X Nuclear
 X Biomass
 X Wind
 X Solar PV 
 X CCS (with Coal, Gas, Biomass)
 X Others

If others, please give brief details or number:
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP), geothermal power, stationary and mobile Fuel Cells

Heat and other conversion technologies:
 X Heat pumps
 X Hydrogen
 X Fuel to gas
 X Fuel to liquid
 X Others

If others, or if necessary,  please give brief details or number of each technology:
solar thermal roof-top collectors, geothermal heat

Grid and infrastructure:
 X Electricity
 X Gas
 X Heat
 X CO2
 X H2
☐ Other
If other, please briefly describe:
Transmission and distribution infrastructure is modeled to include effective costs, but spatial characteristics (e.g. network topology) necessary to estimate reliability are generally not represented.

Energy Technology Substitution:
 X Discrete technology choices
 X Expansion and decline constraints
 X System integration constraints
☐ Other

If other, please give brief details or number:

Energy Service sectors
 X Transportation
 X Industry
 X Residential and commercial
If others, please give brief details or number:
Feedstock for non-energy use (mostly in petrochemical industry) is a separate sector

Please list land use types:
Cropland, Grassland, plantation forest, natural forest, other land
Competition over land between agriculture, forestry and bioenergy is explicitly modeled in the GLOBIOM model which MESSAGE is linked toBioenergy supply is modeled via supply curves derived from the IMAGE model. Forest management derives from the DIMA forest management model.

Other Resources
☐ Water
☐ Metals
 X Cement
☐ Other

If others or specifics, please give brief details

Emissions and climate

Greenhouse Gases coverage:
          X CO2  X CH4 X N2O X HFCs X CFCs X SFs

Pollutants and non-GHG forcing agents:
          X NOx X SOx X BC X OC ☐ Ozone X Other

If other, please specify:
CO, VOCs, NH3, PM2.5

Modelling of Climate indicators:
 X CO2e concentration (ppm)  
 X Radiative Forcing (Wm2 )
 X Temperature change (Co)
☐ Climate damages $ or equivalent