The MESSAGE model includes a detailed representation of energy-related and land-use CO2 emissions (Riahi and Roehrl 2000; Riahi, Rubin et al. 2004; Rao and Riahi 2006; Riahi et al. 2011). Energy related CO2 mitigation options include technology and fuel shifts; efficiency improvements; and carbon capture. A number of specific mitigation technologies are modeled bottom-up in MESSAGE with a dynamic representation of costs and efficiencies. MESSAGE also includes a detailed representation of carbon capture and sequestration from both fossil fuel and biomass combustion. Land-use CO2 was previously represented using methodology documented in (Riahi et al., 2007) but is currently updated based on information from the GLOBIOM model.
MESSAGE includes a representation of non-CO2 GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, SF6, PFCs) mandated by the Kyoto Protocol (Rao and Riahi 2006). Included is a representation of emissions and mitigation options from both energy related processes as well as non-energy sources like livestock, municipal solid waste disposal, manure management, fertilizer use, rice cultivation, wastewater, and crop residue burning.