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Notes on the pronunciation of individual letters

A has a similar quality, whether long or short, to English father.

D is usually silent at the end of words and in the combinations ld and nd. However, d is pronounced in e.g.: Gud 'God', ned 'down' and sted 'place' and also if an r follows.

Eg is often pronounced as ei, e.g. meg 'me'.

Er is usually pronounced as the vowel in English the followed by trilled r, but in some words the vowel is more a-like, as if it were written ær: her 'here', der 'there', hver 'each', verst 'worst'.

Ei is midway between the vowel in day and dye; closer to the latter.


Ki, kj and tj are pronounced as the h in English huge (with more friction) or the ch in German ich, e.g. kirke 'church'.

O especially when long is u-like. For example, o in sola 'the sun' is, ironically, close the vowel in English moon.

R is generally trilled. However, it causes retroflex (tongue rolled back) consonants when it comes before dentals (d, n, t).
Note that faren, moren, broren, søsteren are all pronounced as if the e is not there, with retroflex ns.


T is not pronounced in det 'it, that' and the neuter singular definite ending (-et) e.g. huset 'the house' (unless the genitive s follows: barnets 'the child's').

Tj see ki.

U is pronounced with more tension in the lips than in English, but not quite so much as German ü.

Y is like the vowel in English eat, but with narrowly rounded lips.

Æ similar to the vowel in Southern British bad.


De 'they; you (formal - always written with a capital letter)' is pronounced as if were written 'di'.

Halv 'half' is pronounced as if it were written hall.

Norwegian pronunciation videos