Here is the list of grammatical words one has to know when learning a foreign language.
Some languages e.g. Dutch and some Scandinavian languages may also have a concept of common gender. This is where nouns which used to belong to different genders have been brought together into one gender. For example, in written Bokmål Norwegian the gender distinction is mainly between common and neuter nouns. Common nouns used to be either masculine or feminine and in spoken Bokmål you will still hear dedicated feminine endings.
The word pronoun is used to refer to grammatical words which stand for nouns. In the sentence She cries 'she' is a personal pronoun as it is standing in the place of a noun e.g. the girl.
Verbs are doing words e.g. go, speak, walk. They may also cover vaguer concepts e.g. be, have, become. They may change depending on person (I, you, he/she, we, you (plural), they) or by tense.
I speak Norwegian. She speak*s* Swedish. We sp*o*ke Danish.
Speak is an irregular verb. It has the -s and -ing endings, but 'speaked' would be wrong. Verbs which involve vowel changes (like spoke and spoken) are sometimes called strong verbs.
The infinitive is the form of the verb one finds in the dictionary, usually ending in -e or a stressed vowel, e.g. å snakke or å tro. If you leave off å it is known as the bare infinitive.
Adjectives describe objects, people or states.
The ball is red. There is a green ball.
Adverbs describe verbs. In English they often end in -ly. Adverbs often tell you how people do things.
He ran quickly.
Prepositions are usually small words indicating the roles of nouns in a sentence. In the sentence The book is on the table the word 'on' is a preposition indicating the location of the noun. Other common prepositions include to, with and at.