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这 zhè is 'this'

It is often followed by a measure word such as 个 ge:

When it has an abstract meaning, it may be used on its own as a noun, as with 'this' in English:
Zhè shi wǒ bàba; nà shi wǒ māma; nà wèi shi Wáng lǎoshī? 'This is my father; this is my mother; which person is teacher Wang?
Note that the measure word 位 wèi is used instead of 人 rén to indicate respect to him/her as a teacher.

那 nà is 'that'

些 may be used to indicate the plural.
这些是中国人; 那些是英国人; 哪些是美国人?Zhèxiē shi zhōngguórén; nàxiē shi yīngguórén; nǎxiē shi měiguórén? 'These people are Chinese; those people are British; which people are the Americans?'

哪 nǎ is 'which'

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