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Name and Version:  MESSAGE V.4

Model developer and main users: IIASA

Model objective:
MESSAGE at its core is a technology-detailed energy-engineering optimization model used for energy planning. Through linkage to macro-economic, land-use and climate models it is capable of taking into account important feedbacks and limitations in these areas outside of the energy system.

Model concept:
Hybrid model (energy engineering partial equilibrium model soft-linked to general equilibrium model)

Solution Method:
hybrid model (linear program optimization for the energy systems module, non-linear program optimization for the macro-economic module)

Base year: 2005

Time Horizon, and time steps:
1990-2110, 5 year time steps until 2010, 10 year time steps after 2010

Model anticipation:  Myopic/Perfect Foresight

MESSAGE can be run both with perfect foresight and myopically.

Coverage and regions:
Global. 11 regions (plus global region with trade, bunker fuel  demand and nuclear fuel processing)
List of regions/countries:
AFR - Sub-saharan Africa
CPA - Centrally Planned Asia and China
EEU - Eastern Europe
FSU - Former Soviet Union
LAM - Latin America and the Caribbean
MEA - Middle East and North Africa
NAM - North America
PAO - Pacific OECD
PAS - Other Pacific Asia
SAS - South Asia
WEU - Western Europe

Policy implementation:
 GHG and energy taxes
 GHG emission cap and permits trading
 fuel subsidies and micro-financing (for energy access analysis)
 regulation: capacity, production and share targets


Economic sectors (represented separately in terms of value added):

☐ Agriculture
☐ Industry
☐ Energy
☐ Transport
☐ Services
 X Other
If other, please list or give number. If no separate sectors please give brief explanation of economy:
The macro-economic part MACRO contains a single sector representation of the entire economy.

Exogenous Model Drivers:
☐ Exogenous GDP
☐ Total Factor Productivity
 X Labour Productivity
☐ Capital Technical progress
 X Energy Technical progress
☐ Materials Technical progress
☐ GDP per capita
☐ Other

If other types or endogenous drivers, please describe:e.g. learning-by-doing


 X GDP per capita
☐ Income distribution in a region
 X Urbanisation rate
☐ Education level
☐ Labour participation rate
☐ Other
If other, please briefly describe:

 Behaviour and behavioural change:
Non-monetary factors of decision making (e.g., behavioral impacts) are represented in MESSAGE via so-called inconvenience costs. These are generally included in the consumer-dominated energy end-use sectors (transportation sector, residential and commercial sector) and are particularly relevant in the modeling of energy access in developing countries.

Cost measures:
 X GDP loss
☐ Welfare loss
 X Consumption loss
☐ Area under MAC
 X Energy system costs
☐ Other
If other, please briefly describe:

 X Coal  X Oil
 X Gas  X Uranium
 X Electricity
 X Bioenergy crops ☐ Food crops
☐ Capital
 X Emissions permits
☐ Non-energy goods
☐ Other

If other, please briefly describe:

Resource Use:
 X Coal
 X Oil
 X Gas
 X Uranium
 X Biomass
☐ Other

If others, please give brief details or number:

Electricity technologies:
 X Coal
 X Gas
 X Oil 
 X Nuclear
 X Biomass
 X Wind
 X Solar PV 
 X CCS (with Coal, Gas, Biomass)
 X Others

If others, please give brief details or number:
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP), geothermal power, stationary and mobile Fuel Cells

Heat and other conversion technologies:
 X Heat pumps
 X Hydrogen
 X Fuel to gas
 X Fuel to liquid
 X Others

If others, or if necessary,  please give brief details or number of each technology:
solar thermal roof-top collectors, geothermal heat

Grid and infrastructure:
 X Electricity
 X Gas
 X Heat
 X CO2
 X H2
☐ Other
If other, please briefly describe:
Transmission and distribution infrastructure is modeled to include effective costs, but spatial characteristics (e.g. network topology) necessary to estimate reliability are generally not represented.

Energy Technology Substitution:
 X Discrete technology choices
 X Expansion and decline constraints
 X System integration constraints
☐ Other

If other, please give brief details or number:

Energy Service sectors
 X Transportation
 X Industry
 X Residential and commercial
If others, please give brief details or number:
Feedstock for non-energy use (mostly in petrochemical industry) is a separate sector

Please list land use types:
Cropland, Grassland, plantation forest, natural forest, other land
Bioenergy supply is modeled via supply curves derived from the IMAGE model. Forest management derives from the DIMA forest management model.

Other Resources
☐ Water
☐ Metals
 X Cement
☐ Other

If others or specifics, please give brief details

Emissions and climate

Greenhouse Gases coverage:
          X CO2  X CH4 X N2O X HFCs X CFCs X SFs

Pollutants and non-GHG forcing agents:
          X NOx X SOx X BC X OC ☐ Ozone X Other

If other, please specify:
CO, VOCs, NH3, PM2.5

Modelling of Climate indicators:
 X CO2e concentration (ppm)  
 X Radiative Forcing (Wm2 )
 X Temperature change (Co)
☐ Climate damages $ or equivalent


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